Being the shortest of all files (19 mm), it has a diameter at D1 of 0.19 mm. A variety of instruments are available for pulp removal and root canal instrumentation, preparation and obturation. Although almost all of these instruments were designed between 50 and 100 years ago, there have been significant changes in recent years with respect to their quality, effectiveness and standardization. Root canal instruments are available as hand-held instruments and many of them as motor-driven instruments.
Endodontic hand files such as k-flex files.